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History of Poland

800/900 - On the grounds, between the river Odra and Bug, a country ruled by the Piast dynasty was created. It derived from the Polan tribe and was called Poland.
966 - The first ruler of Poland Mieszko I was baptized. It tied Poland with the Christian culture and Christian countries of Europe.
1000 - The Congres of Gniezno – the meeting of the emperor Otto III with Boleslaus Chrobry. During the convention Otto III put an emperor's diadem on Boleslaus' head and gave him a Saint Maurycy's spear.
1018 - Boleslaw Chrobry's war expedition to Kiev and joining of Red Ruthenia to Poland.
1000/1100 - Battles with Germany, Czech and Kiev's Russia as well as with Slavic tribes settled between the Odra and Laba rivers.
1100/1200 - Boleslaw Krzywousty divided the country among his sons, it caused district division of Poland.
1200/1300 - Tartar's invasions, a part of polish grounds was taken over by the Prussians and Teutonic Knights.
1226 - Talks with Teutonic Order about their settlement on the Mazovian-Prussian frontier. In 1228 the grounds of Chelmińsk were handed into Teutonic Knights.
1300/1400 - Teutonic Order takes over the Gdansk's Pomerania. The war between Poland and Teutonic Order.
1333 - Death of Polish king Wladyslaw Lokietek, the beginning of Kazimierz the Great rulling.
1364 - Convention of monarchs in Krakow. The establishment of Krakow's Academy (Jagiellonian's University).
1377 - Wladyslaw Jagiello becomes the ruler of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
1410 - The Battle of Grunwald – one of the biggest battles in history of Middle Ages' Europe. It was a fight between the Teutonic Order led by Grand Master Ulrich von Jungingen and the alliance of Poland and Lithuania led by Polish king Jogaila (Wladyslaw Jagiello).
1400/1500 - The rulings of Jogaila (Wladyslaw Jagiello), then of Wladyslaw III Walenczyk and finally of Kazimierz Jagiellonczyk.
1543 - A masterpiece, 'On the Revolutions of Heavenly Spheres' by Nicolaus Copernicus, was published in Nuremberg. Copernicus presented his theory concerning the construction of the Solar System in which he proved that the sun is in the center of the Solar System, and all the planets, including the Earth, circulate it.
1500/1600 - The flourishing of the Cracow Academy (Jagiellonian University), elective Sejm – convention of nobility where the decision about the choice of a new kings was to be made.
1619 - Armistice in Dywilin the ending of the Polish – Russian war which lasted from 1609.
1648-1655 - Creation of the Cossacks and Ukrainian peasantry under the leadership of Cossacks' hetman Bohdan Chmielnicki against the Polish nobility.
1683 - The battle of Vienna – a battle between Polish-Austrian-German armies under the leadership of John III Sobieski and the Ottoman empire led by Grand Vizier Kara Mustafa. Turkey lost the battle and it weakened the country in a way that it was no longer a threat to Christian Europe.
1700/1800 - Poland in the Saxon era. Secular Magnates and clerics began a wasteful consumption. On the one hand, there was an expansion of architecture - churches, palaces were being built, and on the other hand, economy and agriculture were heading to bankruptcy.
1772 - The first partition of Poland – Prussia and Russia made a cession of Polish territory.
1791 - Legislature of the first Polish Constitution (Constitution May 3).
1793 - The second partition of Poland.
1795 - The third (and the last partition) of Poland – made by Russia, Prussia and Austria. Poland stopped existing.
1797 - The formation of Separated Units of the Polish Army in Italy called the Polish Legions under the command of Jan Henryk Dabrowski. The Legion's song called Dabrowski's Mazurka became the Polish national anthem in 1926.
1806 - Wielkopolska Uprising – Polish military actions which finished in full success. The victory allowed the creation of the Duchy of Warsaw, a substitute of Polish country.
1830 - A national uprising against Russia was sparked in November. On 25ᵗʰ of January 1831 the uprising turned into a Polish-Russian war which ended in Russia's victory.
1863 - The spread of Russian terror over the Polish society led to the second national Polish uprising in 1863. In spite of initial Polish successes, the January uprising ended in freedom fighters' defeat.
1800/1900 - A period of intense fights to regain freedom after the three partitions of the country. The history of this period was characterized by: literary output concerning political and patriotic subjects (Adam Mickiewicz, Fryderyk Chopin); the Great Emigration- one of the biggest emigration stirs in contemporary Europe, the emigrants were mainly Polish gentry, soldiers, members of National Government, politicians, writers, artists and the intelligentsia; Organic Work – a postulate encouraging to become engaged in economic and cultural development of the country.
1918 - 11ᵗʰ November 1918, end of I World War - Poland regained independence.
1919/1920 - During 1919 and 1920 there was a Polish-Russian, the culmination of fights was the Battle of Warsaw called sometimes referred to as the Miracle at the Vistula. The Polish victory meant that the country could keep its newly regained independence and it cohibited the spread of communist revolution across Europe.
1922 - The building of harbor in Gdynia which was supposed to secure Poland's access to the Baltic sea.
1939 - On 1 September, Germans attacked Poland, which marked the beginning of II World War. On 17ᵗʰ September Germany and Russia made an agreement to unite in the fight against Poland. Because Poland was attacked from the two opposite boarders and received no help from other countries it lost its independence again after 35 days of fights.
1940/1944 - During the II World War Polish soldiers fought on numerous fronts, e.g. airmen had huge successes in the battle of England inflicted heavy losses on the German army; it is also woth mentioning that Polish foot soldiers won Monte Cassino in 1944.
1945 - In May Germans signed capitulation, it marks the end of II World War I Europe. The Ribbentrop–Mołotow's pact signed on Jaltanska conference, Russia held dominion over Poland.
1945/1970 - Poland was a country dependent upon Russia (ZSRR), it only had a restrained sovereignty. Socialistic government took control. The Polish society put a lot of effort to restore the ruined country – houses, factories, were being built and there was a growth of agriculture.
1970/1978 - There were several reasons that led to the weakening of the Polish economy and dissatisfaction of society: a wasteful way of governing the country, irrational investments in economy resulting from political and propaganda priories, poorly qualified managers. In December 1970, workers' demonstrations and strikes broke up against the increase of prices of food. Authorities used the army against the demonstrators as a result 44 people died, 1160 were seriously injured.
1978 - In Vatican, Polish Cardinal Karol Wojtyla, was chosen to become a Pope. He changed the name into John Paul II.
1981 - The government introduced martial law in Poland. Its aim was to repress agitations of society and stop the spread of opposition movements against the present authorities.
1989 - Round Table Talks – the talks exchanged between the authorities and opposition concerning the change of contemporary political government and reconstruction of the economic system. The result of those negotiations were the democratic elections to parliament. The opposition political party 'Solidarnosc' won victory. It marked the end of communist governments in Poland.
1990/2010 - After introducing democratic governments Poland began reforms, there was an extraordinary fast growth of economy. On 1 May 2004 Poland joined the European Union.

Animated history of Poland

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